Bill C-36, the Canadian Government's Prostitution Bill that Penalizes Sex Buyers, Passes in House of Commons
On Monday, October 6 the Canadian government's prostitution bill, Bill C-36, passed in the House of Commons by a 156-124 vote.
In 2007, a case challenging Canada's prostitution laws as unconstitutional resulted in the Supreme Court of Canada scrapping the laws criminalizing pimping, communicating for the purposes of prostitution, and running a brothel. The federal government was therefore tasked with coming up with new laws.
The new legislation, brought forth in June by Justice Minister Peter McKay, explicitly names pimps and johns as exploiters, criminalizing the purchase of sex while decriminalizing prostituted women.
The bill states that the Parliament of Canada "has grave concerns about the exploitation that is inherent in prostitution and the risks of violence posed to those who engage in it" and "recognizes the social harm caused by the objectifcation of the human body and the commodification of sexual activity."
The intention behind this kind of legislation is to work towards an eventual end to prostitution and follows in the footsteps of countries like Sweden, Norway and Iceland. The EU passed a resolution last year encouraging member states to "reevaluate their policies on sex work," with the Nordic Model as a framework.
The bill now goes to Senate and will then very likely be made into law. The anticipated adoption of this bill is due to the hard work of people who have applied a gendered analysis to prostitution, prayed for justice to be done, dared to challenge those who profit from the sale of women's bodies, and testified from their own experience in the sex industry.
This legislation represents a new approach to prostitution that says men do not have the right for paid access to women's bodies, women deserve more than prostitution, prostitution does not promote gender equality, and that we can - and did - ask for more women.more...
B.C. Human Trafficking Charge and the Realities of Prostitution
The Vancouver Sun
Reza Moazami is a 29-year-old human trafficker, child sex offender and pimp convicted this week on 30 charges involving girls aged 14 to 19.
Cody Legebokoff is a 24-year-old, baby-faced, serial killer sentenced this week to life in prison for the first-degree murders of three women and a 15-year-old girl who was legally blind. Judge Glen Perrett said Legebokoff’s intention wasn’t just to kill the women, he wanted to degrade and destroy them.
The link between these two B.C. men is that they both preyed on vulnerable girls and young women.
Moazami sold them by the hour after coercing them into prostitution, drugging them, beating them, raping them, moving them like pawns. He tried to sell them to other pimps.
Taken together the two cases provide a glimpse of the violent, drug-filled, exploitive world of prostitution.
As Judge Perrett noted, these aren’t just criminal matters. Society helped put Legebokoff’s four victims — three of whom were prostitutes — in harm’s way.
The judge referred to calls for an inquiry into Canada’s murdered and missing women since two of Legebokoff’s victims were First Nations.
But it goes deeper than that. The life stories of all the victims are strikingly consistent even though nine of the 11 who testified against Moazami are Canadian-born Caucasians. (The two others came as children from Afghanistan and Ukraine.)
Their common denominators are dysfunctional families and addictions.
These cases are timely as Parliament debates new prostitution laws.
Legalize prostitution and, proponents say, prostitutes will be better able to screen customers. Yet, no screening technique exists to identify monsters like Legebokoff. If it did, he would have been caught after the first murder.
Legalize, say proponents, and prostitutes will work inside and hire bodyguards to protect them.
But working inside didn’t keep the 11 witnesses in Moazami’s case safe.
Their lives were hell as Judge Catherine Bruce described in her 186-page decision that found Moazami guilty on 30 counts including five counts of sexual assault, three counts of sexual interference, three counts of sexual exploitation and one of human trafficking.
So, brace yourself. Some of the disturbing facts highlighted by Judge Bruce are going to be repeated.
E.B. was 12 when she first worked as a street prostitute to get money for food and clothes.
She was 14 when she met Moazami at a North Vancouver hotel room. E.B. had gone to rescue her friend M.N., who had called saying that she was with two men and in trouble.
Instead of a rescue, E.B. was ensnared by Moazami, coerced into working for him.
He often told E.B. he loved her and wanted to have children with her. But the cocaine and ecstasy he gave her kept her continuously high. He threatened to burn her with an iron.
For months she wasn’t allowed to leave the hotel on her own.
Later, she (like the other 10 who testified) was kept on an electronic leash, controlled by frequent phone calls and text messages that had to be answered immediately.
She worked “tired and sore,” without a break, day and night for three years. (Others testified that when they had their periods, Moazami supplied them with red condoms and red sheets.)
Moazami raped her twice after giving her GHB, the date-rape drug. The second time, he sodomized her.
E.B. saw none of the estimated $20,000 a month that she earned. Moazami charged her for the drugs, clothes and accommodation. He “fined” her for disobedience — $50,000 alone for trying to rescue M.N.
E.B. witnessed Moazami rip up other girls’ belongings, threaten their pet dog and punch another girl in the face. He pepper-sprayed them both before they managed to get away.
Here’s one of the few bits of his Facebook messages to her that are fit to print in a newspaper. “Die you nasty bitch u just wait I’lget you and then ull be begging for mercy how di the bear mace treat you hahahahaha !!!!”
After a working trip to Calgary, E.B. was admitted to the children’s ward at a psychiatric hospital.
She has moderate to severe learning disabilities. Her verbal skills are “childlike and simplistic,” the judge wrote. “While testifying, she curled her legs up and hugged them to her chest.”
J.C.H. was 13 and addicted to cocaine when she first exchanged sex for drugs. After time in a youth detention centre, she decided to become a prostitute at the age of 15. A friend from the centre introduced her to Moazami.
He taught her how to use a Taser on aggressive and non-paying clients. She practised using it on her pillow.
Moazami gave her cocaine and GHB almost every day as well as false identification so that she could get birth control injections.
He raped and sodomized her. He beat her badly enough that she was taken to hospital.
C.B. was 15 with a $500-a-day oxycodone addiction when she started working for Moazami. They’d first met when she was 14 and he was selling drugs to her and her mother.
Her addiction escalated to $1,000 a day in the two-and-a-half months she worked for him.
Their working relationship ended on Aug. 1, 2010 when Moazami was arrested.
Police found him hiding in a kitchen cupboard.
Wanna Join Our Biker Gang?
Letter on Bill C-36
If you are in agreement with the mission and vision of REED we invite you to send the following letter to Premier Stephen Harper, Justice Minister Peter McKay, and your local Member of Parliament. The letter is in support of Bill C-36 with ammendments to immunize prostituted women from criminalization. An electronic copy of the letter is also available here.
I am writing in regard to Bill C-36, the Protection of Communities and Exploited Persons Act. I would like to ask you to support the Bill but strike Section 213, the provision that continues to criminalize those selling sex.
The Canadian government has taken a bold step to change the paradigm through which the country handles the commercial sexual exploitation of women, and this foundation gives us a solid starting point from which to advocate for women’s equality. We affirm the steps the government has taken towards framing prostitution as a form of violence against women and are encouraged that they do not accept prostitution as inevitable; these are great wins for those who support the full equality and dignity of women and girls.
The bill contains many assertions to be applauded. The preamble to the bill clearly affirms the inherent violence of prostitution, the social harm caused by the commodification of women’s bodies, the disproportionate impact of prostitution on women and girls, and the fact that the demand for paid sex fuels prostitution. Buyers will face criminal sanctions and the financial benefit from the prostitution of others is illegal.
At the same time the provisions in section 213 that allow the continued criminalization of women selling sex undercuts the intent of the bill. You clearly recognize that prostitution is inherently violent and unequal, yet 213 allows broad loopholes through which prostituted women can be criminalized and subject to further vulnerabilities, contradicting the stated intent of the bill. If you truly believe that women in prostitution are largely coerced and exploited then the location should not determine whether or not you criminalize them.
Please pass this important bill but stay consistent with the framework stated in the preamble and strike Section 213.
Please let me know your response.
REED Fundraiser Screening of Red Light Green Light
Be part of the solution!
New Prostitution Law Acknowledges Inherent Violence of Sex Industry
FOR IMMEDIATE RELEASE
Date: July 5, 2014
[Vancouver, BC] Thursday, June 5, 2014 - REED receives the draft proposed legislation in Bill C-36, The Protection of Communities and Exploited Persons Act, with cautious optimism. The Canadian government has taken a bold step to change the paradigm through which the country handles the commercial sexual exploitation of women, and this foundation gives us a solid starting point from which to advocate for women’s equality.
The bill contains many assertions to be applauded. The preamble to the bill clearly affirms the inherent violence of prostitution, the social harm caused by the commodification of women’s bodies, the disproportionate impact of prostitution on women and girls, and the fact that the demand for paid sex fuels prostitution. Buyers will face criminal sanctions, the financial benefit from the prostitution of others is illegal, and the government has pledged funds to help women exit prostitution. We affirm the steps the government has taken towards framing prostitution as a form of violence against women and are encouraged that they do not accept prostitution as inevitable; these are great wins for those who support the full equality and dignity of women and girls.
At the same time the provisions that allow the continued criminalization of women selling sex undercut the intent of the bill. While selling sex is generally decriminalized through this bill, it is considered illegal if the solicitation happens anywhere in public near where one can “reasonably expect” to find persons under 18 or where prostituted persons stop or attempt to stop any motor vehicle. Both of these provisions allow broad loopholes through which prostituted women can be criminalized and subject to further vulnerabilities, contradicting the stated intent of the bill.
We urge the government to amend the bill to reflect the full decriminalization of prostituted women in all cases and use the bill as a starting point from which to end violence against women and create dignity and equality for all women and girls.
Michelle Miller 604.725.3838
Resist Exploitation, Embrace Dignity (REED)
New Prostitution Legislation Announced
The Ministry of Justice has just released the new prostitution legislation. Read it here and stay tuned for a statement from REED.more...
REED and Over 800 Allies Sign Open Letter Endorsing the Nordic Model in Canada
Today a letter signed by over 800 international women's advocates, including women and men involved with REED, calls on politicians to look towards the Nordic Model - a model which decriminalizes prostitutes, criminalizes pimps and johns, and institues services and supports for those wishing to exit the industry - as a solution to the issue of prostitution and sex trafficking in Canada. The model has been successful in Sweden since 1999, has since been adopted by Norway and Iceland, and has been recommended by French Parliament and EU Parliament. This model focuses explicitly addresses the gender inequality inherent to the sex industry.
If you are in support of the Nordic Model consider writing to tell your elected officials that you want to see prostitution treated as a form of violence against women. Gather your community group, church circle, book club, class, men's group, etc. and write letters or fill out the postcards (see below) together. It's a great way to learn and take a step towards collective action!
To order postcards contact email@example.com.
Right Hon. Stephen Harper, Prime Minister, Leader of the Conservative Party of Canada,
Mr. Thomas Mulcair, MP, Leader of the Official Opposition, the New Democratic Party of Canada,
Mr. Justin Trudeau, MP, Leader of the Liberal Party of Canada,
Mr. Jean-François Fortin, MP, Interim Leader of the Bloc Québécois,
Ms. Elizabeth May, MP, Leader of the Green Party of Canada
April 23, 2014
Dear Sirs and Madam,
We—the undersigned—are women who work in different capacities to end violence against women and to protect and advance women’s rights to equality. Prostitution is a practice in which women’s subordination to men is inherent and lived out repeatedly. Consequently, we are writing to you today to urge you to support the “Nordic approach” to legislation on prostitution for Canada, because it includes legislation, intensive social supports, and public education strategies, all designed to reduce and eliminate prostitution.
We are aware of the March 27 open letter from the Gender and Sexual Health Initiative at the University of British Columbia (GSHI), which calls for decriminalization of all aspects of prostitution, including buyers and profiteers, on the grounds that this is the only “evidence‑based” policy option.
The use of the term “evidence-based” has become a smear used by those supporting the sex industry to suggest that those who oppose it in the name of women’s equality are arguing from a position of nothing more than anecdote or opinion. The list of signatories implies that only those with formal credentials can “research” or interpret evidence. We reject both of these premises. Evidence about the harms of prostitution is gathered by academic researchers, survivors of prostitution and those working on the front-line. That evidence proves that prostitution is violence against women.
This is not only a dispute about evidence; it is a dispute about goals and principles, and legislators will have to decide carefully which principles they wish to uphold, and which goals they wish to pursue, for women in Canada. The evidence in the same studies and government reports cited in the GHSI letter supports intensive efforts, worldwide, to reduce and eliminate prostitution. All reports and studies on prostitution confirm that, as the Ontario Court of Appeal said in Bedford, “prostitution is inherently dangerous in virtually any circumstance.” Merely attempting to reduce the ancillary dangers of prostitution is an inadequate, and in our view, discriminatory strategy.
The signatories to the GHSI letter believe that prostitution, or ‘sex work’, is sex between consenting adults; that a bright line can be drawn between ‘sex work’ and trafficking and child prostitution; and that a harm reduction strategy is all that is necessary to moderate the worst effects of the commercial sex industry. We believe that prostitution constitutes violence against women because it is a practice of subordination and exploitation that is gendered, raced, and classed; that, as the Supreme Court of Canada found in Bedford, most women cannot be said to choose prostitution, and consequently, in the experience of women, any line between prostitution, trafficking and child prostitution is more artificial than real. Therefore, we believe that a strategy that affirms the human dignity of women and girls is essential and the only approach consistent with Canada’s principles of equality.
A Women’s Equality Framework
First of all, any new approach to prostitution must be set in a women’s equality framework and reflect the fact that equality for women is a fundamental principle of Canadian law, enshrined in the Charter of Rights and Freedoms, and set out in human rights legislation that governs employment and services in all jurisdictions in the country. Prostitution is a social institution that both manifests and embeds the inequality between women and men, perpetuating women’s subordination to men, and their status as sexual commodities for men’s use. In Canada, as elsewhere, men are overwhelmingly buyers and women are the ones being sold. It is not sufficient in the face of these facts to take an approach that might merely reduce the harms that surround prostitution, when prostitution itself is a reinforcement of women’s subordination.
Further, the evidence is clear, including in affidavits filed by both the claimants and the defendants in the Bedford case, that women enter into prostitution because of economic need and profound social disadvantage. As it makes no sense to penalize women for their sexual, social, and economic inequality, we endorse the legislative approach of the Nordic model, that is, to decriminalize those—usually women— who are being bought and sold, but to apply criminal sanctions to buyers, pimps, and those who profit from the sale of women’s bodies. The criminal law by itself is not a solution to the inequality problem that prostitution represents, but it is essential, in our view, that the criminal law convey a clear message about women’s equality in Canada: in this case, the message that men’s purchase of sex is an egregious and impermissible violation of equality rights.
Who is in Prostitution?
Most women in prostitution in Canada are there because of poverty, homelessness, addictions, lack of social supports, racism, and the many harsh impacts of colonialism on Aboriginal communities and families. Aboriginal women and girls are disproportionately represented in street prostitution and among women in prostitution who have been murdered. In British Columbia, as the Asian Women Coalition Ending Prostitution (AWCEP) has documented, Asian women are disproportionately represented in indoor prostitution, in venues such as massage parlours, where they are advertised to clients as ‘exotic.’ Many women enter prostitution as children; many have histories of child sexual abuse. Most say they would leave prostitution if they could.
These are well‑established facts. Prostitution is evidence of, and entrenches, sex, race, and class hierarchies. In the face of this, it is wholly inaccurate to call prostitution sex between consenting adults or to explain women’s presence in prostitution as choice, when the choice of women to be in prostitution, or to leave it, is so heavily constrained. Prostitution for poor, racialized women in Canada cannot be called liberty.
The Native Women’s Association of Canada (NWAC) has made a public call for help to stop the buying and pimping of Aboriginal women, and to stop the poverty and abuse that funnels them into prostitution. NWAC has said that its goal is to “end the prostitution of women and girls through legal and public policy measures that recognize the state’s obligations to 1) provide for basic needs and 2) protect women and girls from male violence.” The Asian Women Coalition Ending Prostitution (AWCEP) makes the same call. We support NWAC and AWCEP and join our voices to theirs.
It is apparent from the facts about women in prostitution that concerted and comprehensive social program intervention is required to prevent women and girls from entering prostitution and to assist them to leave it. Well‑designed interventions by Canada’s governments, with long‑term commitments to address the social and economic disadvantage of women and girls, and particularly of Aboriginal and other racialized women and girls, will be needed, not just piecemeal short‑term exit services, drop‑in centers, or safe houses. Creating conditions that minimize the risk of women entering prostitution, and genuinely helping them to leave it, requires providing women and girls with adequate alternative sources of income, including social assistance sufficient to meet basic needs, adequate housing, access to all levels of education, decent work, child care, and counseling, addiction, and mental health services.
On this point too we find the Nordic model helpful, because it is clear that criminal law, by itself, is not a sufficient solution to the profound inequality that prostitution represents. Genuine programmatic and budgetary commitments by governments are also necessary to address the deeply rooted social and economic disadvantages of women and the history of sexism, racism, and colonialism that underlie prostitution.
Why Canada Should Not Legalize Buying, Pimping and Profiting
Legalizing or decriminalizing prostitution has been tried in the Netherlands, Germany, the state of Nevada, some states in Australia, and New Zealand. Such an approach means that governments and societies accept that there is an underclass of women (defined by some combination of poverty, race and addiction) who can continue to be exploited in prostitution, even though prostitution is inherently an institution of sex inequality and violence. We do not agree that prostitution is acceptable for any women, or that the goal of equality between women and men can be abandoned for some women.
The Native Women’s Association of Canada (NWAC) flatly rejects the prospect of indoor prostitution in legalized brothels as an advance for Aboriginal women and girls. They point out that Aboriginal women and girls who are in street prostitution are unlikely to move indoors because poverty and racism keep them in the most dangerous forms of prostitution. Even if this were not the case, NWAC finds that, over time, Aboriginal women and girls have been shifted from institution to institution by settler governments—residential schools, group homes, prisons. The brothel appears to be the most recent institution that is considered better and safer for Aboriginal women. But this is not equality for Aboriginal women and girls. As AWCEP knows from the experience of its members, indoor prostitution is no answer; it merely puts hard walls around the inequality of poor and racialized women, and leaves it unchanged.
Further, legalization and decriminalization, as an approach, renders the men who are buyers, pimps, and prostitution entrepreneurs invisible; their activities become protected, legal, and normalized. We believe that this is a wrong approach: men must be held accountable when they subordinate and exploit women. Equality for women cannot be achieved in Canada if we are unwilling to engage with the cruel reality that men exploit women in prostitution.
Even within the limited goal that legalization sets for itself – i.e., to reduce the harms that surround prostitution – the evidence does not show that it has succeeded. The most recent comprehensive study of prostitution and trafficking in one hundred and fifty countries finds that countries that have legalized prostitution show an increased inflow of trafficked persons, and growth in the size of the prostitution industry. Government reports from Germany, the Netherlands, and New Zealand say that street prostitution persists, and that there is little improvement in the conditions of women in prostitution. The violence inherent in prostitution is accepted by legalization, and the violence regularly associated with prostitution does not disappear.
In addition, what is legalized and normalized is not just individual prostitution transactions, but the prostitution industry. It not only becomes legal for individual men to purchase access to women’s bodies, but also legal to own and run a business that sells access to women’s bodies, or for employers in isolated work locations to provide men access to women for sex as an aspect of employment. For Canada to take this step would be both dangerous and discriminatory.
Where Should Canada Stand?
Canada has a history of commitment to women’s equality, to racial equality, and to vigorous social programs as a means of creating a more egalitarian society in which the basic needs of all Canadians are met. In addition the rights of Aboriginal peoples, and of Aboriginal women to live free from violence, are set out in the United Nations Declaration on the Rights of Indigenous Peoples, recently endorsed by Canada. Consistent with Canada’s long‑standing commitments to equality, we urge you now to support a Nordic‑model approach to new legislative, programmatic, and public education strategies to reduce and eliminate prostitution in Canada.
We do not accept prostitution as a solution to women’s poverty; we want something much better for Canada’s poor and racialized women and girls. We believe you do too, and we urge you to act on your commitments to women and to an egalitarian Canada.
List of Signatories
1. Hamai Abdiwahabu – Bénévole GAP, Chateauguay, QC, Canada
2. Saadatou Abdoulkarim – Militante féministe, QC, Canada
3. Esohe Aghatise – Executive Director, Associazione Iroko Onlus, Coalition Against Trafficking in Women, Torino, Italy
4. Ijose Aghatise – Ospedale Amedeo di Savoia, Turin, Italy
5. Roseline Iroghama Aghatise – Iroko Charity Organisation, Nigeria
6. Isoken Aikpitanyi – Sex Trafficking Survivor and co founder of Associazione Ragazze di Benin City, Italy
7. Dr. Ochuko Ajari – Boston, MA, United States
8. Soerette Alexandre – Mémorante en linguistique, Militante féministe, Haïti
9. Geneviève Allard – Scientfique en environnement, Rimouski, QC, Canada
10. Jess Alley – TDEV Concordia University, Montreal QC, Canada
11. Gwendoline Allison – Foy Allison Law Group, Vancouver, BC, Canada
12. Gisèle Ampleman – Membre du comité québécois de conscientisation, QC, Canada
13. Rachel Ariey-Jouglard – Gatineau, QC, Canada
14. Margaretha Aronson – Member of Fredrika Bremer Förbundet, Sweden
15. Association Femmes pour le Dire, Femmes pour Agir, France
16. Gertrud Åström – President, the Swedish Women’s Lobby
17. Kelsey Atkinson – Vancouver, BC, Canada
18. Ti-Grace Atkinson – Radical feminist, Cambridge, MA, United States
19. Nancy Aubé – Intervenante, Rouyn-Noranda, PQ, Canada
20. Michele Audette – President, Native Women’s Association of Canada, Ottawa, ON, Canada
21. Professor Constance Backhouse – B.A., LL.B., LL.M., LL.D. (HonsLSUC), LL.D. (Hons U Man), Distinguished University Professor and University Research Chair at the University of Ottawa, Ottawa, ON, Canada
22. Roxanne Badger – Bénévole GAP, Chateaugay, QC, Canada
23. Cenen M. Bagon – Vancouver Committee for Domestic Workers and Caregivers Rights, Vancouver, BC, Cana
24. Jane Bailey – B.A.S., M.I.R., LL.B., LL.M. Associate Professor, University of Ottawa, Ottawa, ON, Canada
25. Iliana Balabanova-Stoicheva – Coordinator of Bulgarian Women’s Lobby, Bulgaria
26. Grace Balbutin – Asian Women Coalition Ending Prostitution, Canada
27. Ilaria Baldini – Resistenza femminista, Italy
28. Sheila Ballantyne – PhD candidate, Mining Engineering, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, BC, Canada
29. Gabriela Delgado Ballesteros – Investigadora, Programa Universitario Derechos Humanos, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México
30. Ixtlan Pax Ballesteros – Azusa, CA, United States
31. Jose Krisanto Ballesteros – Manila, Philippines
32. Pauline Ballesteros – Azusa, CA, United States
33. Kat Banyard – UK Feminista, United Kingdom
34. Trisha Baptie – Formerly Exploited Voices Now Educating, Vancouver, BC, Canada
35. Paula Barber – Toronto, ON, Canada
36. Pauline Baril – Montréal, QC, Canada
37. Sharon Barnes – Student, Vancouver, BC, Canada
38. Cassandra Barnaby – Reception, Native Women’s Association of Canada, Ottawa, ON, Canada
39. Kathleen Barry – Ph.D. Sociologist, Professor Emerita, Author of: Female Sexual Slavery and Prostitution of Sexuality: Global Exploitation of Women, United States
40. Claudette Bastien – Présidente du Comité d’action contre la traite humaine interne et internationale, Infirmière semi-retraitée, Montréal, QC, Canada
41. Brigitte Martel Baussant – Secrétaire générale de la Coordination française pour le lobby européen des femmes
42. Suzanne Baustad – Immigration and Refugee Law Paralegal, Vancouver, BC, Canada
43. Rosalyn Baxandall – Distinguished Teaching Professor Emeritus, SUNY, Old Westbury (now CUNY Labor School), NY, United States
44. Rose Beatty – Member of University Women’s Club, Vancouver, BC, Canada
45. Huguette Beauchamp, S.M. – Travailleuse sociale retraitée mais secrétaire au conseil général des srs. De miséricorde, QC, Canada
46. Julie Béchard – Centre Passerelle, Timmins, ON, Canada
47. Carole Bédard – QC, Canada
48. Hélène Bédard – QC, Canada
49. Louise Bégin – Montréal, QC, Canada
50. Professor Louise Bélanger Hardy LL.B., LL.M. – University of Ottawa, Ottawa, ON, Canada
51. Claire Bélanger – Saint-Nicolas, QC, Canada
52. Josée Bélisle – Intervenante communautaire, Amos, QC, Canada
53. Janine Benedet – LLB, LLM, SJD, Associate professor of Law, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, BC, Canada
54. Axelle Beniey – coordinatrice de projet, Guadeloupe
55. Sophie Bennett – UK Feminista, United Kingdon
56. Annette Benoit – Montréal, QC, Canada
57. Josée Benoit – survivante et militante, Malartic, QC, Canada
58. Sarah Benson – Chief Executive Officer, Ruhama: Frontline service to women affected by prostitution and sex trafficking, Ireland
59. Summer-Rain Bentham – Squamish Nation, Front line anti-violence worker, Vancouver Rape Relief and Women’s Shelter, BC, Canada
60. Kristen Berg – Equality Now, New York, NY, United States
61. Samantha Berg – Journalist and organizer, Johnstompers.com, Portland, OR, United States
62. Marina Bergadano – Law Offices, Marina Bergadano & Co., Turin, Italy
63. Catie Bergeron – intervenante, CALACS, Charlevoix, QC, Canada
64. Jocelyne Bernatchez – Directrice des ventes, Amos, QC, Canada
65. Nicole Bernier – Animatrice provinciale, QC, Canada
66. Helene Berry – RN, Vancouver, BC, Canada
67. Christine Bickson – Vancouver, BC, Canada
68. Taina Bien Aime – Executive Director, Coalition Against the Trafficking in Women
69. Geneva Biggers – Women’s peer support group member, Vancouver, BC, Canada
70. Julie Bindel – Journalist, author and feminist campaigner, United Kingdom
71. Lucie Bilodeau – Aide-jardinière, Ste-Christine, QC, Canada
72. Rebecca Bishop – Vancouver, BC, Canada
73. Cécile Bisson – QC, Canada
74. Francine Blais – Retraitée en Service social et à mi-temps, coordonnatrice des Ami-e-s de la Famille Internationale de la Miséricorde, Montréal, QC, Canada
75. Nadine Blais – Enseignante au cégep de l’Outaouais, Travailleuse sociale de formation (niveau maitrise), Gatineau, QC, Canada
76. Stassy Blais – Étudiante en technique de travail social, Amos, QC, Canada
77. Annie Blouin – Intervenante sociale au CALACS, Granby, QC, Canada
78. Linda Boisclair – Responsable du comité de la condition féminine du Conseil central du Montréal métropolitain-CSN, Longueuil, QC, Canada
79. Pierrette Boissé – Responsable du dossier sur la traite humaine à la Congrégation de Notre-Dame, Montréal, QC, Canada
80. Gabrielle Boissonneault – Intervenante, Rouyn-Noranda, PQ, Canada
81. Annick Boissonneault – travailleuse sociale, Val d’Or, QC, Canada
82. Sophie Bolduc – Stagiaire au CALCS de Chateauguay, Montréal, QC, Canada=
83. Antonia Bonito – Turin Municipality Police Force, Turin, Italy
84. Bernard Bosc – Réseau féministe “Ruptures”, QC, Canada
85. Claudia Bouchard – travaille au quotidien avec des femmes qui ont été dans la prostitution, Montréal, QC, Canada
86. Diane Bouchard – Retraitée, Charlevoix, QC, Canada
87. France Boucher – Avocate et chargée de cours à l’UQAM, Montréal, QC, Canada
88. Boucher, Mahara – ASETS Adminstrative Assistant, Native Women’s Association of Canada, Ottawa, ON, Canada
89. Nadjet Bouda – Responsable administrative à la Concertation des luttes contre l’exploitation sexuelle, Étudiante à la maitrise en science politique à l’UQAM, Montréal, QC, Canada
90. Claudie Bougon-Guibert – Conseil national des femmes françaises
91. Carole Boulebsol – Sociologue Ma., Montréal, QC, Canada
92. Mary-Lee Bouma – Resist Exploitation, Embrace Dignity (REED), Vancouver, BC,
93. Ginette Bourdon – Infirmière retraitée, Brossard, QC, Canada
94. Jeannine Bourget – Animatrice, Montréal, QC, Canada
95. Nadine Bouteilly-Dupont – President, Libres Mariannes, LMS, Member of the European Women Lobby
96. Lise Bouvet – Gender Studies Researcher, Switzerland
97. Susan B. Boyd – F.R.S.C. Professor, Chair in Feminist Legal Studies Faculty of Law at Allard Hall, The University of British Columbia, Vancouver, BC, Canada
98. Christine Boyle – Professor Emeritus States, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, BC, Canada
99. Professor Karen Boyle – Chair in Feminist Media Studies, University of Stirling, UK
100. Easton Branam – Seattle, WA, United States
101. Valérie Brancquart – Québec, QC, Canada
102. Chantal Brassard – Intervenante sociale au CALACS, Granby, QC, Canada
103. Marie-Claude Brault – QC, Canada
104. Annick Brazeau – Travailleuse sociale, Baccalauréat en travail social, Diplôme d’études collégiales en techniques policières, Certificat universitaire en développement international, Étudiante à la maîtrise en travail social
105. Hélène Brazeau – Professeure au cégep de l’Outaouais, Maîtrise en psychoéducation de l’UQO, Cantley, QC, Canada
106. Cathy Brennan – Gender Identity Watch, United States
107. Janie Breton – Féministe, QC, Canada
108. Judith Bridge – Vancouver, BC, Canada
109. Elizabeth Briemberg – Retired Supreme Court of BC Family Conciliator, Burnaby, BC, Canada
110. Dr. Gwen Brodsky – LLB, LLm, PhD, Distinguished Visiting Scholar, Faculty of Law, University of British Columbia, BC, Canada
111. Pascale Brosseau – Intervenante, Lévis, QC, Canada
112. Cleta Brown – LLB, LLM, member of University Women’s Club, Vancouver, BC, Canada
113. Kimberly Brown – Equality Now, Nairobi, Kenya
114. Nancy Brown – SC, OBC, Vancouver, BC, Canada
115. Alma Bulawan – President, BUKLOD Survivors’ Group, Olongapo, Philippines
116. Autumn Burris – Survivors for Solutions, United States
117. Twiss Butler – Member Abolish Prostitution Now Coalition Against Trafficking in Women (CATW International), National Organization for Women, United States
118. Dr. Shauna Butterwick – Department of Educational Studies, Faculty of Education, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, BC, Canada
119. Elizabeth Cahill – St John’s, NL, Canada
120. Laure Caille – General Secretary, Libres Mariannes, LMS, Member of the European Women Lobby
121. Serena Caldarone – Resistenza Femminista, Italy
122. Tulsi Callichum – Bénévole GAP, Chateauguay, QC, Canada
123. Callie Fleeger – Student, Talent, OR, United States
124. Associate Professor Angela Cameron BA, LLB, LLM, PhD – University of Ottawa, Ottawa, ON, Canada
125. Annie Campbell – Director, Women’s Aid Federation, Northern Ireland
126. Laura Capuzzo – Gruppo Femminile Plurale, Italy
127. Marie-Josée Carbonneau – Agente de sécurité, Amos, QC, Canada
128. Elda Carly – Équipes d’Action Contre le Proxénétisme, Paris, France
129. Chantale Caron – Agricultrice, St-Roch-de-Richelieu, QC, Canada
130. Chiara Carpita – Resistenza femminista, Italy
131. Francesca Carpita – Italy
132. Melina Caudo – Executive Director, Associazione Progettarsì, Turin, Italy
133. Carole Cayer – Intervenante, CALACS de Chateauguay, Mercier, QC, Canada
134. Ida Centola – Avigliana, Italy
135. Martha Centola – Vice President, Associazione Iroko Onlus, Turin, Italy
136. Pat Cervelli – Licensed Clinical Social Worker, Tuolumne, CA, United States
137. Gaétane Chabot – Saint-Laurent-de-l’île-d’Orléans, QC, Canada
138. Maude Chalvin – Chargée de projet intersectionnalité et agente de communication RQCALACS, Montréal, PQ, Canada
139. Yuly Chan – Asian Women Coalition Ending Prostitution, Canada
140. Jaclyn Chang – MA, Asian Women Coalition Ending Prostitution, Canada
141. Elaine Charkowski – United States
142. Emmanuelle Charlebois – Action ontarienne contre la violence faite aux femmes Ottawa, ON, Canada
143. Alexandra Charles – Ordförande, Stockholm, Sweden
144. Vanessa Chase – Board Member, Women Against Violence Against Women Rape Crisis Centre, Vancouver, BC, Canada
145. Christiana Cheng – PhD, Vancouver, BC, Canada
146. Gaétane Chénier – Intervenante communautaire, Amos, QC, Canada
147. Missy Chirprin – Radio Host/Producer, United States.
148. Youngsook Cho – Korean Women’s Association United, South Korea
149. Jomini Chu – Vancouver, BC, Canada
150. Kim Chu – University of Calgary Nursing, Vancouver, BC, Canada,
151. Mélanie Clément – Action ontarienne contre la violence faite aux femmes Ottawa, ON, Canada
152. Christina Clément – femme, Val d’Or, QC, Canada
153. Karen Cody – President of the Board of Directors for The Organization for Prostitution Survivors, Seattle, WA, United States
154. Mylène Collin – Intervenante, Québec, QC, Canada
155. Jennifer Conkie – Vancouver, BC, Canada
156. Conseil national des femmes françaises
157. Coordination française pour le lobby européen des femmes
158. Lynda Coplin – retired teacher, Surrey, BC, Canada
159. Jeannine Cornellier – SNJM, Association des religieuses pour les Droits des femmes, Montréal, QC, Canada
160. Luce Côté – Montréal, QC, Canada
161. Madeleine Côté – Montréal, QC, Canada
162. Véronique Couillard – Intervenante, CALACS Charlevoix, Charlevoix, PQ, Canada
163. Kelly Coulter – Drug Policy Advocate, Ottawa, ON, Canada
164. Dr. Maddy Coy – Reader in Sexual Exploitation and Gender Equality, London Metropolitan University, UK
165. Larissa Crack – Northern Women’s Connection, Canada
166. Annie Crepin – France
167. Maisie Faith J. Dagapioso – Woman Health Philippines, Zamboanga City
168. Madeleine Dagenais – Action ontarienne contre la violence faite aux femmes Ottawa, ON, Canada
169. Octavia Dahl – United States
170. Florence Daigneault – Montréal, QC, Canada
171. Lucie Daigneault – Comptable à l’administration locale de la Maison mère des Soeurs de Miséricorde, Laval, QC, Canada
172. Mathilde Darton – Intervenante, Rouyn-Noranda, QC, Canada
173. Mélissa Dauphin – Artiste engagée, Montréal, QC, Canada
174. Jo-Anne David – Centre Colibri, Barrie, ON, Canada
175. Stephanie Davies-Arai – United Kingdom.
176. Shelagh Day – CM, Director, Poverty and Human Rights Centre, Vancouver, BC, Canada
177. Docteure Michèle Dayras – présidente de SOS sexisme, France
178. Aurora Javate De Dios – Executive Director, Women and Gender Institute, Miriam College, Philippines
179. Blathnaid de Faoite – Daughter of a survivor of prostitution, Ireland
180. Mia de Faoite – Survivor of Prostitution & Philosophy student at The National University of Ireland, Ireland
181. Yolande de La Bruère – Montréal, QC, Canada
182. Mary DeFusco – Esq. Director of Training and Recruitment, Defender Association of Philadelphia, United States
183. Veronica DeLorme – BA, MA, Retired, Vancouver, BC, Canada
184. Yvette Delorme – Montréal, QC, Canada
185. Theresa Delory – QC, Canada
186. Christiane Delteil – Présidente d’honneur du CIDFF 34, Membre du CT de l’Amicale du Nid “La babotte”, Montpellier, France
187. Line Demers – Adjointe administrative, Diplôme de commis-comptable, Maison d’hébergement pour elles des Deux Vallées, QC, Canada
188. Kim Deniger – Policière, DEC en Techniques Policières, Gatineau, QC, Canada
189. Amelia Denny-Keys – Student, Langley, BC, Canada
190. Linda Denny – MSW, RSW, Langley, BC, Canada
191. Annie Denoncourt – Criminologue, Intervenante jeunesse, Ste-Brigitte-des-Saults, QC, Canada
192. Anastasia DeRosa – Front line crisis worker, Vancouver Rape Relief & Women’s Shelter, BC, Canada
193. Claire Desaint – Vice-President, Réussir l’égalité femmes-hommes, France=
194. Francine Descarries – Ph.D, Professeure et Directrice scientifique du Réseau québécois en études féministes (RéQEF) UQAM, Montreal, QC, Canada
195. Lise Desrochers – Éducatrice retraitée, Ville de Québec, QC, Canada
196. Tamar Dina – Music Liberatory, Halifax, NS, Canada
197. Dr. Gail Dines – Professor of Sociology, Wheelock College, Boston, MA, United States
198. Carmen Dion – Intervenante, Rouyn-Noranda, QC, Canada
199. Françoise Dion – Donnacona, QC, Canada
200. Christine Dionne – Employée du gouvernement du Canada – école de la fonction du Canada, Spécialiste en apprentissage et en développement, Baccalauréat en éducacion de l’anglais langue seconde de l’UQAM, Diplôme d’éducation aux adultes du Collège de Vancouver, Diplôme de business administration du Collège de Kingston, ON, Canada
201. Dr. Peggy Dobbins – Port Lavaca, TX, United States
202. Winifred Doherty – Good Shepherd Sister and NGO representative to the United Nations
203. Isabelle Dostie, intervenante CALACS, Val d’Or, QC, Canada
204. Francine Doucette – Secrétaire et aussi amie dans la famille internationale de la miséricorde, St-Eustache, QC, Canada
205. Siméon Doucette – Retraité de la compagnie Bell canada et ami dans la fam. Int. De la miséricorde, St-Eustache, QC, Canada
206. Jennifer Drew – Consultant to Scottish Women Against Pornography, United Kingdom
207. Marie Drouin – Militante et survivante de la prostitution, Montréal, QC, Canada
208. Laurie Drummond – Member of University Women’s Club, Vancouver, BC, Canada
209. Kim Dubé – Action ontarienne contre la violence faite aux femmes Ottawa, ON, Canada
210. Geneviève Duché – présidente de l’Amicale du Nid, France
211. Micheline Dufour – Retraitée, Charlevoix, PQ, Canada
212. Rose Dufour – Anthropologue, Directrice générale et fondatrice de la Maison De Marthe, QC, Canada
213. Caroline Dufresne – intervenante CALACS, Val d’Or, QC, Canada
214. Nathalie Duhamel – Coordonnatrice RQCALACS, Montréal, PQ, Canada
215. Monique Dumais – O.S.U., Coordonnatrice pour l’association des religieuses pour les Droits des femmes, ARDF
216. Claudette Dumont-Smith – Executive Director, Native Women’s Association of Canada, Ottawa, ON, Canada
217. Caryn Duncan – MA, Vancouver, BC, Canada
218. Catherine Dunne – Act to Prevent Trafficking, Ireland
219. Lyne Duplain – Intervenante CALACS Charlevoix, Charlevoix, PQ, Canada
220. Arianne Duplessis – Montréal, QC, Canada
221. Genevieve Dupuis – Travailleuse sociale CALACS de l’Outaouais, BAC en travail social, Aylmer, QC, Canada
222. Ilaria Durigon – Gruppo Femminile Plurale, Italy
223. Lotte Kristine Dysted – Praktikant hos Danners videncenter, NGO Danner, Denmark=
224. Eaves For Women, United Kingdom
225. Anna Edman – Sweden
226. Dele Edokpayi – Esq., Dele Edokpayi and Co Law Chambers, Benin City, Nigeria
227. Teresa Edwards – B.A., JD. Director, International Affairs and Human Rights, In-House Legal Counsel, Native Women’s Association of Canada, Ottawa, ON, Canada
228. Gunilla S. Ekberg – Former special advisor on prostitution and human trafficking to the Swedish government, human rights lawyer, Canada and Sweden
229. F. Elodie Ekobena – Agente de pastorale sociale Villeray, Montréal, QC, Canada
230. Vera Chigbufue Elue – Legal Counsel, Chicago Municipality Law Office, Chicago, United States
231. Fiona Elvines – Operations Coordinator, Rape & Sexual Support Centre Croydon, UK
232. Jean Enriquez – Executive Director, Coalition Against Trafficking in Women Asia Pacific
233. Priscilla Eppinger – Associate Professor of Religion, Chairperson of the Peace Studies Committee at Graceland University, United States
234. Carla Francesca Erie – Linguiste, Membre d’organisation féministe, Haïti
235. Professor Maria Eriksson – Professor of Social Work, School for Health, Care, and Social Welfare, Mälardalen University, Sweden
236. Dr. Elizabeth Evans – Lecturer in Politics, University of Bristol, UK
237. Jimena Eyzaguirre – M.Sc., M.R.M. Senior Climate Change Specialist, ESSA Technologies Ltd. Ottawa Chapter Co-chair, Canada-Mathare Education Trust
238. Natasha Falle – SEXTRADE101, ON, Canada
239. Melissa Farley – Ph.D., Prostitution Research & Education, San Francisco, CA, United States
240. Danielle Fay – BAA, Thérapeute en santé globale et naturelle, St-Alfred, QC, Canada
241. Madeleine Ferland – Criminologue, Cowansville, QC, Canada
242. Elizabetta Ferrero – Turin, Italy
243. Suzanna Finley – Equality Now, New York, NY, United States
244. Mia Finn – Mother, Langley, BC, Canada
245. Jean Fong – Frontline anti-violence worker, Vancouver Rape Relief & Women’s Shelter, BC, Canada
246. Janick Fontaine – Intervenante sensibilisation, Technicienne en travail social, Thurso, QC, Canada
247. Suzanne Fortier – militante, Val d’Or, QC, Canada
248. Mireille Fortin – Montréal, QC, Canada
249. Nicole Fortin – Retraitée, Charlevoix, PQ, Canada
250. Valérie Fortin – infirmière clinicienne, Brossard, QC, Canada
251. Nicole Fouché – Présidente de Réussir l’égalité femmes-hommes, Cherchs associée, CNRS, Céna-mascipo-EHESS, Paris, France
252. Isabelle Fournier – Intervenante, CALACS de Rimouski, Rimouski, QC, Canada
253. Monique Fournier – Saint-Augustin-de-Desmaures, QC, Canada
254. Lindsey Fox – Victoria, BC, Canada
255. Kirsty Foy – Foy Allison Law Group, Vancouver, BC, Canada
256. Maggie Fredette – Coordonnatrice intervention CALACS, Sherbrooke, PQ, Canada
257. Frappier, Julie – travailleuse CALACS, Val d’Or, QC, Canada
258. Lina Fucà – Turin, Italy
259. Colleen Fuller – Vancouver, BC, Canada
260. Carolyne Gagné – Professeur, Granby, QC, Canada
261. Émilie Gagnon – Infographe, Valleyfield, QC, Canada
262. Gabrielle Gagnon – Ottawa, ON, Canada
263. Jocelyne Gagnon – Retraitée, Charlevoix, PQ, Canada
264. Marielle Gagnon – Montréal, QC, Canada
265. Mariette Gagnon – Montréal, QC, Canada
266. Michèle Garceau – Citoyenne, Lachine, QC, Canada
267. Joane Garon – Intervenante CALACS de Rimouski, Rimouski, QC, Canada
268. Elizabeth Gautchi – Med, member of University Women’s Club, Vancouver, BC, Canada
269. Chantal Gauthier – Auxilière aux familles à domicile, Montréal, QC, Canada
270. Noga Gayle – PhD, member of University Women’s Club, Vancouver, BC, Canada
271. Angela Gbemisola – United Kingdom
272. Yolande Geadah – Author, Montreal, QC, Canada
273. Monina Geaga – Secretary-General, SARILAYA, Philippines
274. Jenny Geng – Burnaby, BC, Canada
275. Mylène Geoffroy – Intervenante communautaire, Saint-Jean-de-Matha, QC, Canada
276. Carol Giardina – Asst Professor, History Dept. Queens College, NY, United States
277. Lucia Giffi – Turin, Italy
278. Lise Giguère – QC, Canada
279. Marcella Gilardoni – Gilardoni Law Offices, Turin, Italy
280. Associate Professor Daphne Gilbert BA, LLB, LLM – University of Ottawa, Ottawa, ON, Canada
281. Dr. Aisha K. Gill – Reader in Criminology, University of Roehampton, UK
282. Marie-Chanel Gillier – New Delhi, India
283. Jay Ginn – Older Feminists Network, United Kingdom
284. Rosanna Giorgietti – Italy
285. France Giroux – Coiffeuse, Granby, QC, Canada
286. Phyllis Giroux – S.C., M.A.(J), Kelowna, BC, Canada
287. Catriona Gold – Executive Member CUPE 2278, Vancouver, BC, Canada
288. Irene Goodwin – Director, Evidence to Action, Native Women’s Association of Canada, Ottawa, ON, Canada
289. Sonya Grenier – intervenante CALACS, Val d’Or, QC, Canada
290. Leah Gruenpeter Gold – PhD Philosophy Dept. Tel Aviv University, Israel
291. Tamara Gorin – Port Moody, BC, Canada
292. Leanore Gough – Front line anti-violence worker, Vancouver Rape Relief and Women’s Shelter, BC, Canada
293. Francine Gravel – Réceptioniste à l’Infirmerie de la Maison mère des Soeurs de Miséricorde, Terrebonne, QC, Canada
294. Arlana Green – Victim Services Support worker, Women Against Violence Against Women Rape Crisis Centre, Vancouver, BC, Canada
295. Samantha Grey – Front line anti-violence worker, Vancouver, BC, Canada
296. Élaine Grisé – Montréal, QC, Canada
297. Associate Professor Vanessa Gruben B.Sc.H, LLB, LLM – University of Ottawa, Ottawa, ON, Canada
298. Catherine Guay-Quirion – Étudiante universitaire à temps plein, Amos, QC, Canada
299. Julie Guibord – Intervenante, CALACS de Chateauguay, Valleyfield, QC, Canada
300. Joana Guillaume – Professeure de philosophie, Études juridiques, Membre d’organisation féministe, Haïti
301. Susanna Gulin – Finland
302. Bernadette Gullion – Educator, BC, Canada
303. Jacqueline Gullion – MA, Vancouver, BC, Canada
304. Czarina M. Gutierrez – B.A., BC, Canada
305. Irit Hakim – Safe World for Women, United Kingdom, Correspondent in Israel
306. Francine Hamel – Retraitée, Diplômes de Maîtrise en littérature et Maîtrise en éducation (counselling de carrière), QC, Canada
307. Nicole Hamel – coordonnatrice, CALACS, Lac-à-la-Tortue, PQ, Canada
308. Carol Hanisch – Editor, MeetingGroundOnLine.org, Ellenville, NY, United States
309. Joyce Harris – Chair Sisters of St. Ann B. C. Social Justice Committee, BC, Canada
310. Jayme Hass – Junior Policy Analyst / Researcher, Native Women’s Association of Canada, Arnprior, ON
311. Karah Hawkins – Victim Advocate CEASE, Edmonton, AB, Canada
312. Katherine Hébert-Metthé – Consultante sur l’hypersexualisation, Montréal, QC, Canada
313. Orla Hegarty – NL, Canada
314. Hanne Helth – Board Member, Danish Women’s Society, Copenhagen, Denmark
315. Terrie Hendrickson – Vancouver, BC, Canada
316. Cathryn Henley – President, Canadian Federation of University Women Cranbrook Club, Cranbrook, BC, Canada
317. Céline Héon – Montréal, QC, Canada
318. Loralie Hettler – Vancouver, BC, Canada
319. Mary Honeyball – Member of the European Parliament, United Kingdom
320. Christine Honor – Australia
321. Myriam Houde – Criminologue au Service de police de la Ville de Gatineau, Gatineau, QC, Canada
322. Bernett Huang – Archival Studies, Fu Ren University, Vancouver, BC, Canada
323. Jade Hudon – QC, Canada
324. Donna M. Hughes – B.S., M.S., Ph.D. Professor & Carlson Endowed Chair, Gender & Women’s Studies Program, University of Rhode Island, United States
325. Charlotta Huldt-Ramberg – Member of the board or the UN Women National Committee, Sweden
326. Jacqui Hunt – Equality Now, London, United Kingdom
327. Patricia Hynes – Retired Professor of Environmental Health, Boston University and Director, Traprock Center for Peace and Justice, Greenfield, MA, United States
328. Valentina Iamotti – Resistenza femminista, Italy
329. Chantal Ismé – Organisatrice communautaire à la Concertation des luttes contre l’exploitation sexuelle, Montréal, QC, Canada
330. Ghada Jabbour – KAFA (enough) Violence & Exploitation, Lebanon
331. Professor Martha Jackman – LL.B., LL.M., L.S.M. Faculty of Law, University of Ottawa, ON, Canada
332. Cynthia Jacques – Intervenante, Rouyn-Noranda, PQ, Canada
333. Suzanne Jay – MA, Asian Women Coalition Ending Prostitution, Canada
334. Patricia Jean – Linguiste, Féministe, Haïti
335. Rhéa Jean – Ph. D in Philosophy (Laval University), Postdoctoral fellow at the
336. University of Luxembourg
337. Kimberly Jerome – Bookkeeper, Native Women’s Association of Canada, Ottawa, ON, Canada
338. Sonya Johal – BSc, Surrey, BC, Canada
339. Lone Alice Johansen – Head of Information, The Secretariat of the Shelter Movement, Oslo, Norway
340. Hedwig Johl – NGO in special consultative status with ECOSOC, Congregation of Our Lady of Charity of the Good Shepherd
341. Natasha Johnson – Graphic Designer, Vancouver, BC, Canada
342. Guðrún Jónsdóttir – talskona Stígamóta, Stígamótum, Reykjavík, Iceland
343. Valerie Judge – MBA, Management Consultant, Ireland
344. Justice for Girls, Vancouver, BC, Canada
345. Ludmila Karabaciska – Étudiante à l’Université Concordia, Applied human science, Montréal, QC, Canada
346. Annpôl Kassis – Paris, France
347. Soka Handinah Katjasungkana – LBH-Apik, Semarang, Indonesia
348. Ranjit Kaur – Ex Magistrate, ex-Director of Rights of Women UK, Lawyer, United Kingdom
349. Roisin Kelly – Ireland
350. Helen Kelsey – Status of Women Committee, Surrey Teachers Association, Surrey, BC, Canada
351. Marilyn Kempf – Équipes d’Action Contre le Proxénétisme, Paris, France
352. Hilla Kerner – Front line anti-violence worker, Vancouver Rape Relief and Women’s Shelter, BC, Canada
353. K. Kilbride – Surrey, BC, Canada
354. Jennifer Kim – BA Philosophy, Vancouver, BC, CanadA
355. Morgan King – Australia
356. Ann Kirkey – Toronto, ON, Canada
357. Antonia Kirkland – Equality Now, New York, United States
358. Daisy Kler – Front line anti-violence worker, Vancouver Rape Relief and Women’s Shelter, BC, Canada
359. Dr. Renate Klien – Spinifex Press, Australia
360. Donée-Maude Kobin – Intervenante, Rouyn-Noranda, PQ, Canada
361. Patsy Kolesar – Vancouver, BC, Canada
362. Donna Christie Kolkey – member of University Women’s Club, Vancouver, BC, Canada
363. Monica Krake – Communications Director, Vancouver, BC, Canada
364. Izabela Krekora – Manager of fund development, Women Against Violence Against Women Rape Crisis Centre, Vancouver, BC, Canada
365. Cathrine Linn Kristiansen – Norway
366. Leanne Kwan – PharmD, Vancouver, BC, Canada
367. Renée Labrie – St-Jean-de-l’île-d’Orléans, QC, Canada
368. Sophie Labrie – Intervenante sociale au CALACS, Bromont, QC, Canada
369. Maryse Lafleur – QC, Canada
370. Isabelle Lafontaine – Étudiante au doctorat en travail social à l’Université de Montréal, Auxiliaire de recherche, Intervenante à l’association des familles monoparentales et recomposées de l’Outaouais, Professeure à la cité collégiale aux programmes de techniques de travail social et d’éducation spécialisée, Gatineau, QC, Canada
371. Judy Lafontaine, intervenante, CALACS, Val d’Or, QC, Canada
372. Allison Laing – BA, Vancouver, BC, Canada
373. Jennifer E. Laing – RN, BScN, Vancouver, BC, Canada
374. Monique, S.M. Lallier – Supérieure générale de l’Institut des Soeurs de miséricorde de Montréal, Montréal, QC, Canada
375. Lee Lakeman – Women’s rights advocate, Vancouver, BC, Canada
376. Ève Lamont – Réalisatrice, Montréal, QC, Canada
377. Nancy Langlois – Action ontarienne contre la violence faite aux femmes Ottawa, ON, Canada
378. Catherine Lapointe – Canada
379. Ghislaine Laporte – S.N.J.M., QC, Canada
380. Marai Larasi – MBE, M.A. Executive Director, Imkaan, UK
381. Marilyn Larocque – R.H.S.J. Kingston, ON, Canada
382. Myriam Larocque – Intervenante, Étudiante, Montréal, QC, Canada
383. Trine Porret Randahl Larsen – President, Women’s Council in Denmark (Kvinderådet)
384. Gemma Laser – Belfast, ME, United States
385. Widlande Laurol – Linguiste, Membre d’organisation féministe, Haïti
386. Claudia Lavigueur – Intervenante, CALACS de Chateauguay, Ste-Clotilde, QC, Canada
387. Marie-Josée Lavoie – Secrétaire-administratrice RQCALACS, Montréal, PQ, Canada
388. Katherine B. Lawrence – J.D. Member, Board of Directors, Women Against Violence Against Women Rape Crisis Centre, Vancouver, BC, Canada
389. Annette Lawson – Chair, the National alliance of Women’s Organizations, United Kingdom
390. M. Paule Lebel – Membre de la coordination du Québec de la marche mondiale des femmes, QC, Canada
391. Aurélie Lebrun, PhD – QC, Canada
392. Marie-Paule Lebrun – Montréal, QC, Canada
393. Brigitte Lechenr – Woman, United Kingdom
394. Patricia Leclair – Militante, Montréal, QC, Canada
395. Marie Lecomte – Vice President, Libres Mariannes, LMS, Member of the European Women Lobby
396. Alice Lee – Asian Women Coalition Ending Prostitution, Canada
397. Jessica Lee – Front-line Crisis Worker, Vancouver, BC, Canada
398. Young Sun Lee – Vancouver, BC, Canada
399. Éliane Legault-Roy – Responsable des communications à la Concertation des luttes contre l’exploitation sexuelle, Maitrise en science politique, Montréal, QC, Canada
400. Dorchen A. Leidholdt – Director, Center for Battered Women’s Legal Services, Sanctuary for Families, New York
401. Ronitin Lentin – University Professor, Ireland
402. Barbara Leon – Watsonville, CA, United States
403. Carla Lesh – Kingston, NY, United States
404. Constance Létourneau – Membre du Comité de Montréal contre la traite des personnes, QC, Canada
405. Guilaine Levesque – Coordonnatrice CALACS, Baie-Comeau, PQ, Canada
406. Lévesque, Sandra – intervenante CALACS, Val d’Or, QC, Canada
407. Jacqueline Lewis – Emergency Medical Technician & Front line crisis worker at Vancouver Rape Relief & Women’s Shelter, BC, Canada
408. Maureen Lewis – Red Deer, AB, Canada
409. Raïssa Leyan’Simbi – Action ontarienne contre la violence faite aux femmes Ottawa, ON, Canada
410. Jytte Lindgaard – Lawyer, member of The Danish National Observatory on Violence Against Women
411. Linklater, Sheila – Director of Finance, Native Women’s Association of Canada, Ottawa, ON, Canada
412. Pak Ka Liu – Victim Services Medical Support Worker, Women Against Violence Against Women Rape Crisis Centre, Vancouver, BC, Canada
413. Josée Longchamps – Thérapeute, Tingwick, QC, Canada
414. Letizia Longo – Accountant, Turin, Italy
415. Marissa Lorenz – Colorado, United States
416. Lovely Jean Louis – Mémorante en lingUnited Statesitique et en études juridiques, Militante féministe, Haïti
417. Laura L. Lovett – Associate Professor, Department of History, University of Massachusetts, Amherst, MA, United States
418. Brenda Lucke – RN, BSN, BA, GNC(C), Langley, BC, Canada
419. Emma Luke – Occupational Therapist, Australia
420. Nathalie Lussier – Secrétaire-comptable, Granby, QC, Canada
421. Ilaria Maccaroni – Resistenza femminista, Italy
422. Linda MacDonald – Persons Against NST, Canada
423. Ainsley MacGregor – Front-line anti-violence worker, Vancouver Rape Relief and Women’s Shelter, BC, Canada
424. R. MacKenzie – Feminist campaigner, Scotland
425. Alison Luke – Macquarie University, Sydney, Australia
426. Eliana Maestri – Feminist Group, Birmingham, UK
427. Dr. Arianna Maffiotti – Turin Local Health Services, Moncalieri (TO), Italy
428. Sarah M. Mah – BSc, Asian Women Coalition Ending Prostitution, Canada
429. Marisa Maharaj – Toronto, ON, Canada
430. Grace Malkihara – Vancouver, BC, Canada
431. Sylvie Mantha – Chef Division recherche, développement et stratégie organisationnelle du Service de police de Gatineau, Gatineau, QC, Canada
432. Maude Marcaurelle – Intervenante sociale, Grenville-sur-la-Rouge, QC, Canada
433. Berthe Marcotte – Montréal, QC, Canada
434. Louise Marcotte – Survivante, Montréal, QC, Canada
435. Malka Marcovich – Historian and feminist writer, International consultant, Paris, France
436. Lorna Martin – Executive Assistant, Native Women’s Association of Canada, Ottawa, ON, Canada
437. Angela Martinez – TTS, Coordonatrice des services d’interventions du Calacs francophone d’Ottawa, ON, Canada
438. Virginia Martinez – Burnaby, BC, Canada
439. Annalise Masear-Gough – Vancouver, BC, Canada
440. Kristine Massey – Lecturer in Criminal Psychology, Canterbury Christchurch University, UK
441. Maureen Master – Human Rights Lawyer, United States
442. Ane Mathieson – Fulbright Fellow & Staff with the Organization for Prostitution Survivors, Seattle, Unites States
443. Jade Mathieu – Intervenante CALACS de Chateauguay, St-Hyacinthe, QC, Canada
444. Andrea Matolcsi – Equality Now, London, UK
445. Diane Matte – Activiste féministe, Concertation des luttes contre l’exploitation sexuelle, Montréal, QC, Canada
446. Maria Grazia Mauti – Resistenza femminista, Italy
447. Paula May – Experte en ressources humaines, Montréal, QC, Canada
448. Philippe Mayer – Géomaticien, Montréal, PQ, Canada
449. Paola Mazzei – Resistenza femminista, Italy
450. Dr. Melanie McCarry – Guild Senior Research Fellow, Connect Centre for International Research on Gender and Harm, University of Central Lancashire, UK
451. Geraldine McCarthy – Act to Prevent Trafficking, Ireland
452. Annie McCombs – Kalamazoo, MI, United States
453. Maureen McGowan – New York, NY, United States
454. Sheila McIntyre – Retired Professor of Law, University of Ottawa; specializing in Constitutional and Human Rights Law, Ottawa, ON, Canada
455. Caitlin McKellar – Board Member, Women Against Violence Against Women Rape Crisis Centre, Vancouver, BC, Canada
456. Myriam Meilleur – Stagiaire, CALACS Chateauguay, QC, Canada
457. Chiara Melloni – Gruppo Femminile Plurale, Italy
458. Émilie Mercier-Roy – Survivante de la prostitution et co-fondatrice du Gîte L’Autre porte, Val-d’Or, QC, Canada
459. Gunhild Mewes – Germany
460. Nancy J. Meyer – Hyattsville, MD, United States
461. Ashley Milbury – MA, Front line anti-violence worker, Vancouver Rape Relief and Women’s Shelter, BC, Canada
462. Michelle Miller – DMin, Resist Exploitation, Embrace Dignity, Vancouver, BC, Canada
463. Jodie Millward – MCP, CCC, Aboriginal Family Counselor, Women Against Violence Against Women Rape Crisis Centre, Vancouver, BC, Canada
464. Suzy Mingus – Accountant, Vancouver, BC, Canada
465. Shiloh Minor – Teacher, Vancouver, BC, Canada
466. Phyllis Minsky – Teacher and Aboriginal Advocate, Queen Elizabeth Secondary School, Surrey, BC, Canada
467. Kathy Miriam – PhD, Brooklyn, NY, United States
468. Adrienne Montani – Child Rights Advocate, Vancouver, BC, Canada
469. Rachel Moran – Founding Member of SPACE International (Survivors of Prostitution-Abuse Calling for Enlightenment), Ireland
470. Magdala Moreau – Mémorante en linguistique, Militante féministe, Haïti
471. Marthe Moreau – Montréal, QC, Canada
472. Michele Morek – PhD. UNANIMA International Inc. an ECOSOC-accredited NGO of the United Nations
473. Rachael Morgan – Student, Australia
474. Émilie Morin-Rivest – Intervenante à la maison d’hébergement pour elles des deux vallées, Gatineau, QC, Canada
475. Julie Charbonneau Morin – Éducatrice spécialisée, Montréal, QC, Canada
476. Marcelle Morin – QC, Canada
477. Nathalie Morin – Commis comptable, Amos, QC, Canada
478. Libby Morrison – United Kingdom
479. Françoise Morvan – Vice-présidente de la Coordination française pour le lobby européen des femmes
480. Dr. Helen Mott – Bristol Fawcett, United Kingdom
481. Rebecca Mott – Survivor of indoor prostitution, United Kingdom
482. Jeanne Françoise Mouè – La Maison, Toronto, ON, Canada
483. Debs Munn – Refugee Settlement Worker, Vancouver, BC, Canada
484. Lily Munroe – Women’s rights advocate and abolitionist, Australia
485. Meghan Murphy – MA, Founder & Editor, Feminist Current, Journalist, Vancouver, BC, Canada
486. Jeannine Nadeau – Infirmière, Ville de Québec, QC, Canada
487. Marie-Michelle Nault – Survivante, Montréal, QC, Canada
488. Amy Nahwegahbow – Senior Policy Analyst/ Researcher, Native Women’s Association of Canada, Ottawa, ON
489. Ana Maria R. Nemenzo – National Coordinator, Woman Health Philippines
490. Frederica Newell – Ireland
491. Donna-Marie Newfield – Therapist, Canada
492. Kendra Newman – Heiltsuk Nation, front line anti-violence worker, Burnaby, BC, Canada
493. Liette Nobert – Montréal, QC, Canada
494. Clare Nolan – Srs of the Good Shepherd, New York, NY, United States
495. Celia Nord – Archaeologist, Lee Creek, BC, Canada
496. Jane Norlund – Norway
497. Dr. Caroline Norma – Lecturer in Global, Urban and Social Studies, RMIT University, Australia
498. Ana Novakovic – Front-line anti-violence worker, Vancouver Rape Relief & Women’s Shelter, BC, Canada
499. Zdenka Novakovic – Burnaby, BC, Canada
500. Daniella Nunes-Taveira – Intervenante à la maison d’amitié – télécommunications à l’hôpital d’Ottawa, Technique de réadaptation et de justice pénale et présentement à l’université en criminologie, Ottawa, ON, Canada
501. Dr. Monica O’Connor – Independent Researcher, Ireland
502. Maura O’Donohue – Doctor, Ireland
503. Aibhlín O’Leary – Anti-Trafficking Project Coordinator Immigrant Council of Ireland, Dublin, Ireland
504. Katrin Öberg – Sweden
505. Lis Ehmer Olesen – Board member of the Women’s Council and The Danish National Observatory on Violence Against Women, Denmark
506. Catherine Olivier – Enseignante au collegial, Montréal, PQ, Canada
507. Maren Ollman – Turin, Italy
508. Kajsa Olsson – Sweden
509. Alina Olszewska – Turin, Italy
510. Blessing Osatohanmwen – Turin, Italy
511. Sonia Ossorio – President, National Organization for Women, New York, NY, United States
512. Oti Anukpe Ovrawah – Director, Nigerian Human Rights Commission, Abuja, Nigeria
513. Angel Love Owens – Perth, Australia
514. Geneviève Pagé – Phd, Professeure de science politique à l’UQAM, Montréal, QC, Canada
515. Karina Painchaud – QC, Canada
516. Celeste Pang – Freelance Bookkeeper, Vancouver, BC, Canada
517. Marie-Noël Paradis – Intervenante, Québec, PQ, Canada
518. Monique Paradis – Enseignante retraitée, QC, Canada
519. María Paredes – Student, Vancouver, BC, Canada
520. So Eyun Park – BMLSc., Burnaby, BC, Canada
521. Maggie Parks – Chief Executive, Women’s Rape and Sexual Abuse Centre, Cornwall, UK
522. Giulia Parm – Turin, Italy
523. Carla Pastorino – Genova, Italy
524. Kim Pate – Executive Director, Canadian Association of Elizabeth Fry Societies, Ottawa, ON, Canada
525. Niovi Patsicakis – B.Ed, M.Ed., Special Education Consultant, SENG-trained facilitator, Canada
526. Yolaine Paul – Responsable de bibliothèque, Études administratives et comptable, Membre d’organisation féministe, Haïti
527. Sokie Paulin – Glendale, CA, United States
528. Françoise Pellerin – Montréal, QC, Canada
529. Gisèle Pellerin – Montréal, QC, Canada
530. Céline Pelletier – Maison Interlude, Hawkesbury, ON, Canada
531. Lise Perras – Montréal, QC, Canada
532. Julie-Anne Perrault – Féministe, Montréal, QC, Canada
533. Nathalie Perreault – Travailleuse culturelle et féministe (abolitionniste), Montréal, QC, Canada
534. Bridget Perrier – SexTrade101, ON, Canada
535. Marisa Perrone – Turin, Italy
536. Dr. Jenny Petrak – MSc, PsychD
537. Heidi Petrak – Msc. Nursing Professor, BC, Canada
538. Gaëtane Pharand – Centre Victoria, Sudbury, ON, Canada
539. Jacqueline Picard – QC, Canada
540. Stéphanie Picard – Intervena less...
"Buying Sex" - Film and Panel on April 15
Buying Sex: The Other Side of the Story – Hearing Women’s Voices
Tuesday, April 15
Alice MacKay Room
Vancouver Public Library, Central Branch, 350 Georgia St
On April 15 join us for a screening of the film Buying Sex at the Vancouver Public Library. The film explores the state of prostitution laws in Canada by listening to the voices of experiential women, policy-makers, lawyers and men who buy sex. Additionally it examines countries such as Germany, New Zealand and Sweden to better understand what is at stake and what other countries have done regarding prostitution.
After the film we will hear from several people featured in the documentary, as well as legal interveners in the Supreme Court case Canada v. Bedford. REED is proud to sponsor the event along with Asian Women Coalition Ending Prostitution (AWCEP), formerly Exploited Voices now Educating (EVE), Indigenous Women Against the Sex Industry (IWASI) and Vancouver Rape Relief and Women's Shelter.
Department of Justice Solicits Citizen Response on Prostitution
Canadians have been given a rare opportunity to have our voices heard directly by the Department of Justice regarding prostitution.
As you may be aware, a recent decision of the Supreme Court of Canada has struck down many of the laws around prostitution. The government of Canada is seeking the public's input on what the new law should look like. You can find the survey here:
This online consultation is open until March 17, 2013.
To provide some background, around the world prostitution is generally treated in one of 3 ways:
· Decriminalization/legalization: Jurisdictions such as Germany, the Netherlands, New Zealand and Australia have decriminalized and regulated prostitution.
· Prohibition: All states in the United States, with the exception of the state of Nevada, prohibit both the purchase and sale of sexual services, as well as the involvement of third parties (e.g. pimps) in prostitution.
· Abolition (the “Nordic Model”): Sweden, Norway and Iceland have adopted a criminal law response that seeks to abolish the exploitation of persons through prostitution by criminalizing those who exploit prostitutes (johns, pimps and traffickers) and decriminalizing prostitutes themselves. These countries have also implemented social programs to help prostitutes leave prostitution (e.g.) exit strategies and supporting services).
At REED we support the Nordic Model. We encourage you to educate yourself on this issue and respond to the government’s survey.
The Department of Justice questionnaire contains six questions. The following is REED's response to each question.
1. Yes, Johns should be criminalized.
2. No, the prostituted woman is the victim of the crime. Her actions should not be criminalized.
Prostituted women disproportionately represent the most vulnerable groups in society: Aboriginal persons, women, economically disadvantaged persons, women who have suffered childhood sexual abuse, racialized women, those with substance dependency, and immigrants. To criminalize them would only exacerbate their vulnerabilities.
3. We do not support the purchase of sexual services.
4. Yes, pimps should be criminalized.
5. We believe in the abolition of prostitution. Legalization legitimizes and normalizes the exploitation of women. We believe that women and children are not a commodity, and prostitution is a form of violence against women and children. We believe that the Nordic Model is the optimal social and legislative framework.
6. (We encourage you to respond as an individual or on behalf of your organization if appropriate.)
Supreme Court of Canada Rules to Strike Down Prostitution Laws
On December 20th, the Supreme Court of Canada struck down three contested laws surrounding prostitution. Street soliciting, living on the avails, and owning a brothel have long been illegal in Canada, and are now decriminalized. This is a partial victory, because prostituted women are now decriminalized too, and this provides a chance to make laws that better protect them. Canada has an opportunity to align itself with Sweden and other countries in stopping the demand for paid exploitation of women.
Parliament has a year to re-write or leave the laws fallen, and REED strongly advocates for the Nordic Model. This two-tiered approach acknowledges those who are doing the violence - the johns, pimps, and traffickers - and holds them accountable, while decriminalizing and providing a range of support for prostituted women. We have seen this to be an incredible success in countries such as Sweden, Iceland, and Norway, who are leaders in gender equality. Conversely, countries that have legalized prostitution have seen an increase in sex trafficking and illegal activity, while their laws have failed to protect the most vulnerable women. Examples of this are in Germany, Australia, and the Netherlands.
Prostitution is a severe form of exploitation and violence against women. It will be extremely sad for Canada and women in particular if our parliament does not respond with new laws the criminalize the buyers and help the vulnerable to exit. Canada has an opportunity to be a world leader in gender equality - if it adopts the Nordic model - by clearly naming prostitution as violence against women and protecting the most vulnerable persons in our country.
With decisions pending, now is the time to take action. Here are a few simple steps you can take to advocate for positive change.
1. Download and send these postcards to your MP: http://canadacan.blogspot.ca/
2. Write letters to your politicians. For a letter template and some tips click here:
3. Share this these Action Points with your friends and networks.